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The ice melts in an endothermic process while dissolving the acid. Sumerians had a list of types of vitriol that they classified according to the substances' color. [30] Most of this amount (≈60%) is consumed for fertilizers, particularly superphosphates, ammonium phosphate and ammonium sulfates. Sulfuric acid is an odorle Because the hydration reaction of sulfuric acid is highly exothermic, dilution should always be performed by adding the acid to the water rather than the water to the acid. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution", "Stratospheric aerosol—Observations, processes, and impact on climate", https://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/review05/pd27_pickard.pdf, "A tribute to Zakariya Razi (865 – 925 AD), an Iranian pioneer scholar", "Distillation – from Bronze Age till today", CDC – Sulfuric Acid – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic, Sulfuric acid analysis – titration freeware, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sulfuric_acid&oldid=989926949, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2011, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Process flowsheet of sulfuric acid manufacturing by, This page was last edited on 21 November 2020, at 20:16. If ingested, it damages internal organs irreversibly and may even be fatal. About 20% is used in chemical industry for production of detergents, synthetic resins, dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, petroleum catalysts, insecticides and antifreeze, as well as in various processes such as oil well acidicizing, aluminium reduction, paper sizing, water treatment. In the seventeenth century, the German-Dutch chemist Johann Glauber prepared sulfuric acid by burning sulfur together with saltpeter (potassium nitrate, KNO3), in the presence of steam. It is an alternative to electrolysis, and does not require hydrocarbons like current methods of steam reforming. [citation needed] Used acid is often recycled using a spent acid regeneration (SAR) plant. [citation needed]. Sulfuric acid is produced from sulfur, oxygen and water via the conventional contact process (DCDA) or the wet sulfuric acid process (WSA). A solution of copper (II) sulfate can be electrolyzed with a copper cathode and platinum/graphite anode to give spongy copper at cathode and evolution of oxygen gas at the anode, the solution of dilute sulfuric acid indicates completion of the reaction when it turns from blue to clear (production of hydrogen at cathode is another sign): More costly, dangerous, and troublesome yet novel is the electrobromine method, which employs a mixture of sulfur, water, and hydrobromic acid as the electrolytic solution. The sulfur–iodine cycle has been proposed as a way to supply hydrogen for a hydrogen-based economy. Like sulfuric acid, selenic acid is a strong acid that is hygroscopic and extremely soluble in water. This type of reaction, where protonation occurs on an oxygen atom, is important in many organic chemistry reactions, such as Fischer esterification and dehydration of alcohols. Preparation of the diluted acid can be dangerous due to the heat released in the dilution process. Warm water near the interface rises due to convection, which cools the interface, and prevents boiling of either acid or water. Sulfuric acid acts as the electrolyte in lead–acid batteries (lead-acid accumulator): Sulfuric acid at high concentrations is frequently the major ingredient in acidic drain cleaners[12] which are used to remove grease, hair, tissue paper, etc. Reaction with sodium acetate, for example, displaces acetic acid, CH3COOH, and forms sodium bisulfate: Similarly, reacting sulfuric acid with potassium nitrate can be used to produce nitric acid and a precipitate of potassium bisulfate. Moreover, its strong oxidizing property makes it highly corrosive to many metals and may extend its destruction on other materials. After several refinements, this method, called the lead chamber process or "chamber process", remained the standard for sulfuric acid production for almost two centuries. Later refinements to the lead chamber process by French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and British chemist John Glover improved concentration to 78%. However, the manufacture of some dyes and other chemical processes require a more concentrated product. In this method, phosphate rock is used, and more than 100 million tonnes are processed annually.

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